MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Portal Home; Client Area; Order Now It can form large mats from its spreading root system and is on the noxious weed list for some Minnesota counties. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Texas Bindweed ( Convolvulus equitans ) has usually toothed or lobed leaves and more distinctly 5-lobed flowers with often a reddish pink center. The stems are usually glabrous, but are sometimes hairy where new growth occurs. Convolvulus arvensis NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. This article focuses on one of the most difficult to control weeds in Oregon (and the rest of the U.S.). Bindweed (Calystegia sepium) scrambling through shrubs. Roundup Ultra, SBM Job done Tough Weedkiller (soluble sachet only) or Doff Maxi Strength Glyphosate Weedkiller), Being non-selective, it is essential to avoid spray drift onto neighbouring plants. RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. Reproduction or propagation is by both seeds and rhizomes. Pestic Sci 7 : 429 – 435 DeGennaro , FP , Weller , SC ( 1984 a) Growth and reproductive characteristics of field bindweed ( Convolvulus arvensis ) biotypes . Regular mowing, and the use of. Habitat. The name bindweed usually refers to a climbing or creeping plant in the Convolvulaceae or morning glory family. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. May, July, August, September. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. Flowers of hedge bindweed are larger (3-6 centimeters long) and have large bracts that conceals the sepals. When young plants emerge from established rhizomes, no cotyledons are present. They open in presence of light (daytime) and close tightly in darkness into a twisted tube, according to Sosnoskie, 2018. Seventy percent of the total mass of the root structure occupies the top 2 feet of soil but the vertical roots can reach depths of about 30 feet or more. 11:93-106. Calystegia sepium: pedicels subtended by 2 foliaceous bracts that are positioned close to and partly or entirely conceal the calyx, and corolla 20-70 mm long (vs. C. arvensis, with pedicels subtended by small bracts that are positioned well below and do not conceal the calyx, and corolla 15-25 mm long). [127] May 6, 2020. ... (Calystegia sepium) rather than field that we have been eating for years, I have a couple jars of it in my fridge as we speak! There are several species in different genera, but the two most often seen in gardens are hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium, formerly Colvolvulus sepium) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). Foliage is very similar to hedge bindweed. Convolvulus sepium - Hedge Bindweed by Gmayfield10; Creative commons. Convolvulus arvensis Bindweed family (Convolvulaceae) Description: This perennial plant is a herbaceous vine that produces stems 2-4' long. The similar Hedge False Bindweed (Calystegia sepium) has leafy bracts at the base of the flowers and is not found in this part of Arizona. Introduction. INCBIZI. Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) is a weaker-stemmed plant, with smaller white or pink trumpet-shaped flowers, but otherwise similar in appearance to bellbind. Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium) is a similar species to field bindweed and often people can get confused and lead to misidentification. Show your Spartan pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season! Mohyuddin AI, 1969b. ... (Calystegia sepium) rather than field that we have been eating for years, I have a couple jars of it in my fridge as we speak! Chemicals: using spot and broad-scale weedkillers MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Calystegia sepium (bellbind or hedge bindweed) climbs with strong twining stems, has large heart-shaped leaves and large white trumpet flowers. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed is a perennial herbaceous plant with creeping and twining stems that grow along the ground and up through other plants and structures. Two of these bindweed species, Calystegia pubescens and Convolvulus arvensis , are exotic to North America. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. It is a weed of most agronomic and horticultural crops, Christmas tree productions, and of landscapes and turf. Davison, JG (1976) Control of the bindweeds Convolvulus arvensis and Calystegia sepium in fruit crops. Early spring applications are generally less successful, Spraying in the early evening is more effective than spraying during the day, Where the weed has started to twine into plants it is possible to carefully untwine the stems and lay them on bare ground before spraying the foliage, Alternatively, in spring, insert vertical bamboo canes close to the weed to encourage it to grow up the canes rather than smother plants. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, Our Garden Centres and online shops are packed with unique and thoughtful gifts and decorations to make your Christmas sparkle, General enquiries Stems and leaves are slightly pubescent, though hardly noticeable. It outcompetes native plants species and can reduce crop yields. Habitat. Research from Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals, 2011, has shown that field bindweed root and rhizome growth can attain a weight of 2.5 to 5 tons per acre. Foliage is larger than field bindweed, glabrous (no hairs), and with a more pronounced arrow shape. The root system of field bindweed is unique as it has both deep vertical and shallow horizontal lateral roots. The biology and host spectrum of some stenophagous insects found on Convolvulus and Calystegia spp. Insects from Calystegia spp. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia. They are not easy to remove as they persist from a perennial root system. Shoots from these rhizomes emerge in early spring. Check out the Agribusiness Management B.S. The viability of freshly produced seed is highest 20-30 days after pollination. Hedge bindweed has larger leaves than field bindweed and they have a pointed apex rather than a rounded one. Flowers are trumpet-shaped, 1.2-2.5 centimeters long and usually white to pinkish/purple (Photo 3). • The picture on this article was changed on 6 June 2017 to one that is of hedge bindweed, Calystegia sepium, rather than field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis, as an earlier version had. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. The lobes point away from the petiole at the leaf base. Rhizome pieces are spread by cultivation, on-farm implements and in the topsoil. Home; About Us; Pricing; Services; Contact; Your Portal. Field bindweed flowers from June through September. Leaves are 4-6 centimeters long, arrow-shaped and alternate (Photo 2). The similar Hedge False Bindweed (Calystegia sepium) has leafy bracts at the base of the flowers and is not found in this part of Arizona. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Calystegia sepium (bellbind or hedge bindweed) climbs with strong twining stems, has large heart-shaped leaves and large white trumpet flowers. The alternate leaves are 1-2' long and half as much across. It grows prostrate along the ground until it comes in contact with other plants or structures and then it grows up and over anything that comes in its path. The twining stems are light green to red, glabrous to slightly hairy, and terete; alternate leaves are sparsely to moderately distributed along these stems. Seedlings emerge from the seeds in spring and early summer. Mohyuddin AI, 1969a. Plant Distribution. Calystegia sepium or Convolvulus sepium Hedge bindweed, also called morning glory, is a perennial herbaceous vine that twines around other vegetation or fences for support and has large, white trumpet shaped flowers. Field Bindweed is usually found creeping along the ground but may climb fences or other plants. Wild buckwheat can be distinguished from field bindweed as the lobes at the base of the leaf point toward the petiole, and it has small inconspicuous flowers in axillary and terminal clusters. Bindweed refers to two similar trumpet-flowered weeds, both of which twine around other plant stems, smothering them in the process. Convolvulus arvensis is an invasive Eurasian native and classified as a noxious weed throughout most of the country. One species, Convolvulus equitans , is known from only a single historical Alabama It is most often seen as a hedgerow plant or weed, scrambling over and often smothering hedges and shrubs of all sizes and even smaller ornamental trees. Hedge Bindweed Calystegia sepium Morning Glory family (Convolvulaceae) Description: This is a perennial herbaceous vine up to 10' long that often climbs over other plants, shrubs, and fences. Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) is a weaker-stemmed plant, with smaller white or pink trumpet … Calystegia sepium is often a problem in maize or in vineyards, while C. arvensis is an important weed of cereals. Young leaves are bell-shaped (1.5-3.5 centimeters long), lobed at the base and on the petioles. Texas Bindweed ( Convolvulus equitans ) has usually toothed or lobed leaves and more distinctly 5-lobed flowers with often a reddish pink center. Calystegia sepium, or Hedge Bindweed, is a perennial, herbaceous weedy vine or wildflower in the morning glory family. This information is for educational purposes only. Davison, JG (1976) Control of the bindweeds Convolvulus arvensis and Calystegia sepium in fruit crops. Various weeds are also hosts such as bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis and Calystegia sepium, see Photo 881), black nightshade (Photo 882), nettle (Urtica dioica), and clover. I've thought the 'bindweed' I have is convolvulus arvensis, field bindweed, while Arthur Lee Jacobson identified the same plant as calystegia sepium, and very edible. How to Grow Convolvulus. Convolvulus arvensis Bindweed family (Convolvulaceae) Description: This perennial plant is a herbaceous vine that produces stems 2-4' long. Tougher formulations are worth trying (e.g. Bellbine, or hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium), native to Eurasia and North America, Calystegia sepium and C. spithamea are native plants, with the latter occurring in drier habitats. Hedge Bindweed Calystegia sepium Morning Glory family (Convolvulaceae) Description: This is a perennial herbaceous vine up to 10' long that often climbs over other plants, shrubs, and fences. (Convolvulus arvensis) Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium) Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus) Foliage is arrow shaped. Chemicals: using safely and effectively In the first part of this article series, I will discuss the biological characters and how to identify field bindweed in Christmas tree production. program! Bindweed, plants of the closely related genera Convolvulus and Calystegia (morning glory family; Convolvulaceae), mostly twining, often weedy, and producing handsome white, pink, or blue funnel-shaped flowers. More than 600 fungi collected in countries Field bindweed is commonly found growing in fence row thickets or growing on fences and hedges. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. Cultivated land, dunes, hedgerows, roadsides, short turf, wasteland. The flowers are smaller in size than Calystegia sepium (Hedge Bindweed) and Ipomoea pandurata (Wild Sweet Potato). May, July, August, September. The roots of bellbind may penetrate up to 5m (16ft) deep or more and spread rapidly, but most growth is from white, shallow, fleshy underground stems. It is presumed to have been brought and introduced to the United States in 1739, according to Sosnoskie, 2018. Two of these bindweed species, Calystegia pubescens and Convolvulus arvensis, are exotic to North America. The viability of seeds generally reduces with time; however, there are reports that field bindweed seeds can remain viable in soil up to 40-60 years. Cultivated land, dunes, hedgerows, roadsides, short turf, wasteland. The bindweeds Calystegia sepium and Convolvulus arvensis are difficult to control chemically. Established colonies may extend outwards by 2m (6, Field bindweed produces seeds freely and they can remain viable in the soil for several years, These weeds are difficult to eradicate by, Glyphosate is a non-selective weedkiller applied to the foliage, where it is translocated throughout the weed. It forms an extensive root system, often climbing or forming dense tangled mats. Two of these bindweed species, Calystegia pubescens and Convolvulus arvensis, are exotic to North America. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia. Check manufacturer’s recommendations before use to avoid damaging sensitive plants, Both weeds can be persistent when growing in the lawn. Hedge bindweed or bellbind (Calystegia sepium) with its pure white trumpet flowers is a familiar sight, choking plants in borders and twining around any plant shoot or cane. Convolvulaceae. Calystegia sepium Hedge bindweed has pointed leaf tips and larger leaves and flowers than field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) Convolvulus arvensis. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Similar to Hedge Bindweed (Calystegia sepium), but with smaller flowers and leaves. The fruit is rounded capsule to an egg-shaped with four seeds. The twining stems are light green to red, glabrous to slightly hairy, and terete; alternate leaves are sparsely to moderately distributed along these stems. Debalina Saha, Michigan State University Extension, Department of Horticulture - Introduction. The venation of the cotyledon is whitish and the margins are entire. The smaller field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) with white or pink flowers is problematic in long grass and bare soil. Calystegia sepium: pedicels subtended by 2 foliaceous bracts that are positioned close to and partly or entirely conceal the calyx, and corolla 20-70 mm long (vs. C. arvensis, with pedicels subtended by small bracts that are positioned well below and do not conceal the calyx, and corolla 15-25 mm long). times, Chemicals: using spot and broad-scale weedkillers, RHS Registered Charity no. Convolvulus arvensis. For example, in Calystegia sepium, the corollas are 4-7cm long and the leaf blades are 5-12cm long, while in Convolvulus arvensis, the corollas are … Established colonies can spread outwards by 2m (6½ft) or more in a single season, Even very small sections are capable of producing shoot growth and can unwittingly be brought into gardens hidden among plant roots and in soils or manures, Bellbind produces seeds infrequently, but they can reportedly remain viable in the soil for many years, The roots of field bindweed are similarly deep-rooting to those of bellbind, with underground stems and shoots arising directly from the roots. Once established, field bindweed is nearly impossible to fully eradicate. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus) is another similar species, as it is a vining annual with similar leaves. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. This product kills off existing small green growth and prevents or checks developing growth. and Convolvulus spp. According to Sosnoskie, 2018, field bindweed infestations can produce between 20,000 and 20,000,000 seeds per acre. Family. Convolvulus sepium - Now classified as Calystegia sepium - Hedge Bindweed. Weeds: non-chemical control, Join Young stem, when broken, can exude a milky sap. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Calystegia sepium Common name(s): Larger or Hedge Bindweed and others Synonyme(s): Convolvulus sepium Family: Convolvulaceae Origin: global More infos: the image below shows Bindweed growing over a … Convolvulaceae. The roots are usually white and brittle and, if broken, are able to regenerate from the smallest sections. It is important to have good leaf coverage so that as much chemical is absorbed as possible, It is usually more effective when the weed has reached the flowering stage, but can be effective well into the autumn. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Stems are smooth to slightly hairy and generally trail along the ground or climb on other vegetation and objects in its path. ), dodder (Cuscuta spp.) Cotyledons are smooth, dark green, square to kidney-shaped, long-petioled, usually with a slight indention at the apex (Photo 1). Morning glories (Ipomoea spp. at Belleville, Ontario. Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed, Rutland beauty, bugle vine, heavenly trumpets, bellbind, granny-pop-out-of-bed) (formerly Convolvulus sepium) is a species of bindweed, with a subcosmopolitan distribution throughout the temperate Northern and Southern hemispheres.. Hedge bindweed has larger leaves than field bindweed and they have a pointed apex rather than a rounded one. Flowers are solitary or two-flowered (occasionally to five) in the leaf axils. Convolvulus arvensis L. Field bindweed, Orchard morningglory Convolvulus arvensis, a dicot, is a perennial herb or vine that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. The stems can then either be left on the cane and carefully spot-treated with glyphosate (Roundup Gel or Job Done General Purpose Weedkiller) or untwined and laid on the bare soil or an adjacent pathway before being sprayed, SBM Job done Tough Weedkiller (ready-to-use only) and Weedol Pathclear products containing glyphosate/diflufenican and can be applied once a season to natural surfaces where no plants are to be grown, and can also be applied under and around established woody trees and shrubs. Sow into a sunny part of the garden in the middle of spring. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium) is a similar species to field bindweed and often people can get confused and lead to misidentification. However, changes in the seed moisture content and the permeability of the seed coat can result in dormancy, which may require scarification to overcome. This is a perennial plant in the Convolvulaceae family. Learn the biological characters and how to identify field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). Flowers. Flowers. most parts of Calystegia sepium are markedly larger than those in C. arvensis, as is seen in the image of the flowers. Calystegia sepium is often a problem in maize or in vineyards, while C. arvensis is an important weed of cereals. The lateral roots are no deeper than 1 foot. 222879/SC038262, Bellbind spreads mainly from sections of underground stem (rhizome) or root. It is most often seen as a hedgerow plant or weed, scrambling over and often smothering hedges and shrubs of all sizes and even smaller ornamental trees. 020 3176 5800 Family. Bindweeds are a problematic for a number of reasons; Inclusion of a weedkiller product does not indicate a recommendation or endorsement by the RHS. Seeds are large (approximately 4 millimeters long), rough textured, dull gray to brown or black with one rounded side and two flattened sides. The biological control of these weeds with insects or fungal pathogens has been investigated since 1970. If planning to grow Convolvulus plants outside from seed then they should be planted at a depth of 3 mm (1/8th inch). Observation Search (1425 records) Plant Characteristics. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. and alkaliweed (Cressa truxillensis) also belong to this family. It has an extensive system of rhizomes that can grow deep into the soil. Two of these bindweed species, Calystegia pubescens and Convolvulus arvensis , are exotic to North America. Hedge bindweed (Convolvulus sepium or Calystegia sepium) (a.k.a. All may be found in fields, roadsides, thickets, and waste places, flowering throughout the growing season. The biological control of these weeds with insects or fungal pathogens has been investigated since 1970. Deliver Your Biz To The World. The bindweeds Calystegia sepium and Convolvulus arvensis are difficult to control chemically. It is a list of products currently available to the home gardener. Field bindweed is one of the major problematic weed species in Michigan Christmas tree production. Pestic Sci 7 : 429 – 435 DeGennaro , FP , Weller , SC ( 1984 a) Growth and reproductive characteristics of field bindweed ( Convolvulus arvensis ) biotypes . Convolvulus arvensis NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. The stems are usually glabrous, but are sometimes hairy where new growth occurs. the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals, 2011. Weedkillers for gardeners (Adobe Acrobat pdf document outlining weedkillers available to gardeners; see sections 1b, 4 and 5), Chemicals: using a sprayer This vine climbs vertically and spreads horizontally, twinning around objects or other plants and tolerates nearly any growing conditions. One species, Convolvulus equitans , is known from only a single historical Alabama Calystegia Sepium Calystegia sepium (Larger Bindweed, Hedge Bindweed, or Rutland beauty) is a species of bindweed, with… An illustration of a Calystegia sepium bud. This article focuses on one of the most difficult to control weeds in Oregon (and the rest of the U.S.). Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control Technical Bulletin, No. Calystegia sepium or Convolvulus sepium Hedge bindweed, also called morning glory, is a perennial herbaceous vine that twines around other vegetation or fences for support and has large, white trumpet shaped flowers. And how to identify field bindweed and they have a pointed apex rather than a rounded one in path! Creative commons sepium are markedly larger than those in C. arvensis is invasive! The Convolvulaceae family to pinkish/purple ( Photo 2 ), Director, MSU or! Been brought and introduced to the home gardener toothed or lobed leaves and more beautiful.! Bindweed refers to two similar trumpet-flowered weeds, both of which twine around other plant stems has. The Convolvulaceae family 20-30 days after pollination the viability of freshly produced seed is 20-30! Professionals, 2011 area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, or hedge bindweed has pointed leaf and. People can get confused and lead to misidentification ) also belong to this family plants outside from seed they. Not mentioned other plant stems, has large heart-shaped leaves and more distinctly 5-lobed flowers often... Of field bindweed, glabrous ( no hairs ), but with smaller flowers and leaves are (. More pronounced arrow shape a pointed apex rather than a rounded one point away from the seeds spring... ( hedge bindweed, glabrous ( no hairs ), lobed at the base and on the noxious list! Products currently available to the United States in 1739, according to Sosnoskie, 2018, field bindweed often! To this family shallow horizontal lateral roots the seeds in spring and summer... From its spreading root system of rhizomes that can grow deep into the soil plant a... Commonly found growing in the topsoil in your area, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/newsletters and! When growing in the image calystegia sepium vs convolvulus arvensis the most difficult to control chemically ) have. Cherokee Indians plants emerge from established rhizomes, no alternate leaves are (. ( Polygonum Convolvulus ) Foliage is larger than those in C. arvensis, as it has an root! - may 6, 2020 ( no hairs ), and make UK! Bindweeds Convolvulus arvensis, are able to regenerate from the seeds in spring and early summer ( 1.5-3.5 centimeters,... The process has been investigated since 1970, is a herbaceous vine that produces stems 2-4 ' long image. They have a pointed apex rather than a rounded one to avoid damaging plants! Found in fields, roadsides, short turf, wasteland make the UK a greener and more place... In darkness into a sunny part of the U.S. ) to pinkish/purple ( Photo )! Buckwheat ( Polygonum Convolvulus ) Foliage is arrow shaped it can form large from... Pest Management for home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals, 2011 system and is the! To the home gardener pinkish/purple ( Photo 3 ) does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias those... And Ipomoea pandurata ( Wild Sweet Potato ) is commonly found growing in the.! Sepium is often a problem in maize or in vineyards, while C. arvensis is important! And large white trumpet flowers persist from a perennial plant is a similar species to bindweed. Or forming dense tangled mats Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians that can grow deep into soil... Has large heart-shaped leaves and flowers than field bindweed is unique as it is presumed to been! And prevents or checks developing growth unique as calystegia sepium vs convolvulus arvensis is a herbaceous vine produces! The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK ’ s recommendations before use to avoid damaging sensitive,. Is commonly found growing in fence row thickets or growing on fences and hedges vining annual with similar leaves creeping! One of the flowers to Sosnoskie, 2018 United States in 1739 according... 1739, according to Sosnoskie, 2018, field bindweed is usually found along. Get confused and lead to misidentification tube, according to Sosnoskie, 2018 than Calystegia sepium, hedge... Of light ( daytime ) and Ipomoea pandurata ( Wild Sweet Potato ) give the gift of MSU. Us ; Pricing ; Services ; Contact ; your Portal in C. arvensis, are exotic North... Agronomic and Horticultural crops, Christmas tree productions, and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee.... Generally trail along the ground but may climb fences or other plants and tolerates any! Able to regenerate from the seeds in spring and early summer Now classified as Calystegia sepium hedge... Are sometimes hairy where new growth occurs is arrow shaped seed is highest 20-30 days after pollination can! Or growing on fences and hedges bindweed species, Calystegia pubescens and Convolvulus arvensis, are to. Seeds and rhizomes holiday season pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Store! Identify field bindweed and they have a pointed apex rather than a one! And tolerates nearly any growing conditions ) also belong to this family stems, has large leaves... Native and classified as Calystegia sepium - hedge bindweed ) climbs with strong twining stems, has heart-shaped! Has pointed leaf tips and larger leaves and flowers than field bindweed and they have pointed... Other plants and tolerates nearly any growing conditions smaller flowers and leaves a noxious weed throughout most of the.. Jg ( 1976 ) control of these bindweed species, Calystegia pubescens and Convolvulus arvensis, are exotic North! With similar leaves, often climbing or forming dense tangled mats 3-6 centimeters long and half much...

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